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IDUs(Injecting Drug User) & HIV - IDUs in India? Yes

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IDUs in India? Yes
  • The most significant shift in drug use in India is the move from smoking or chasing to IDU.
  • Heroin, Brown Sugar (Crude Heroin) and pharmaceuticals like fortwin, dextropropoxyphene are drugs commonly injected in India.
  • IDUs are present among all sections of the population.
Cities
Map of India
Map of India
Injecting drug use features increasingly in the HIV epidemics of major cities, including Chennai, Mumbai and New Delhi (MAP, 2005, NACO, 2005).

Pune
NACO has recently implemented an oral substitution treatment program in Pune. Demonstrating Pune has IDUs.

North East India
In Manipur and Nagaland IDUs constitute 1.9% – 2.7% of the population.

Other
NACOs national survey reported that IDU is now spreading into smaller towns and rural areas.

IDUs and HIV
Wide differences in HIV prevalence rates have been observed in the IDU community in the country.

In the rest of the country HIV prevalence among IDUs shows a steady increase. In the north– east, a gradual reduction can be seen over the last four years although sites such as Imphal, Bishnupur and Tuensang in the northeast are still very high.

In many cities with concentrated populations of IDUs, the HIV prevalence is above the critical level of 5%, causing great public health concerns.
(NACO 2004)

IDUs & HIV Transmission


Manipur
  • Since the 1980s Manipur has been flooded by heroin and amphetamines.
  • The drugs come across the land border with Burma, which is one of the largest narcotics producers in Asia.
  • The easy availability of drugs in Manipur, the lack of opportunities for the young, and the constant atmosphere of violence and uncertainty has created a significant population of drug addicts.
  • The tendency of addicts to share needles has lead to the highest HIV concentration in India.
  • Almost 1/5 of drug addicts in Manipur are HIV+.
Deb’s, ‘The lost generation of Manipur’ in AIDS Untold stories of India

Sex Work & IDU
Imphal, capital of Manipur
    Click to view large Image
    Map of Manipur
  • Panda et al (2001) study on the connection between drug use and sex work.
  • 69 women drug users were interviewed.
  • 38 women were injecting drug users (55%).
  • 80% of the respondents reported having sex with non–regular partners, two–thirds reported sex in exchange for money or drugs.
  • The prevalence of HIV amongst IDU was 57%.
Delhi & IDU
  • Sentinel Surveillance data, 2003 recorded a rise from 7.4% to 14.4% HIV prevalence among IDUs in New Delhi.
  • IDUs were reported in considerable numbers in Tihar Jail, New Delhi.


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