IDUs(Injecting Drug User) & HIV

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IDU & HIV Transmission: How?
With injections, blood is introduced into needles and syringes.

The reuse of a needle or syringe with HIV–infected blood by another drug injector carries a high risk of HIV transmission because infected blood can be injected directly into the blood stream.

IDU: What does it mean?
IDU = Injecting Drug User
People who inject drugs into their veins in order to get high.

Injecting Drug User Injecting Drug User Injecting Drug User
Injecting Drug User

Sharing Equipment – The Risk
Sharing drug equipment can also provide a risk of HIV transmission
Sharing drug equipment can also provide a risk of HIV transmission
Infected blood can be introduced into drug solutions by using blood contaminated syringes to prepare drugs, reusing water, bottle caps, spoons, cookers or other containers used to dissolve drugs in water and to heat drug solutions, reusing small pieces of cotton or cigarette filters used to filter out particles that could block the needle.

HIV: Not the Only Risk
HIV is just one of the adverse health consequences related to IDU and equipment sharing, others include IDU: A Global Perspective
IDUs in India? Yes Cities
Map of India
Map of India
Injecting drug use features increasingly in the HIV epidemics of major cities, including Chennai, Mumbai and New Delhi (MAP, 2005, NACO, 2005).

Pune
NACO has recently implemented an oral substitution treatment program in Pune. Demonstrating Pune has IDUs.

North East India
In Manipur and Nagaland IDUs constitute 1.9% – 2.7% of the population.

Other
NACOs national survey reported that IDU is now spreading into smaller towns and rural areas.

IDUs and HIV
Wide differences in HIV prevalence rates have been observed in the IDU community in the country.

In the rest of the country HIV prevalence among IDUs shows a steady increase. In the north– east, a gradual reduction can be seen over the last four years although sites such as Imphal, Bishnupur and Tuensang in the northeast are still very high.

In many cities with concentrated populations of IDUs, the HIV prevalence is above the critical level of 5%, causing great public health concerns.
(NACO 2004)

IDUs & HIV Transmission


Manipur
Deb’s, ‘The lost generation of Manipur’ in AIDS Untold stories of India

Sex Work & IDU
Imphal, capital of Manipur Delhi & IDU
Kolkata & IDU Chennai & IDU IDUs in Pune? Yes

Photographs taken in Pimpri Photographs taken in Pimpri Photographs taken in Pimpri
Photographs taken in Pimpri, August 2008
What can be done to reduce the risk? Intervention – What is being done
Patil State DIC
Patil State DIC
NGOs Sharan, Sahara & Deep Griha Society formed the Pune City Action Plan (PCAP) for IDUs in 2006.

In 2007 Sharan & Sahara set up the Pimpri IDU centre providing oral substitution treatment (OST) and related services with Deep Griha Society providing nutrition & HIV/AIDS awareness.

Pimpri IDU Project
Pimpri IDU Project
In January 2008 NACO began to fund the PCAP initiative in Pimpri.

In August 2008 PCAP set up Patil Estate drop in centre to reach more IDUs in the city.

In addition clients are referred to Muktangan who have addiction centres and detox centres. Muktangan work with alcoholics, IDUs and other drug users.
What still needs to happen
Needle and Syringe Programme (NSP)
The risk factor for HIV and other BBV transmission is high in the sharing of injecting equipment with an HIV infected person or the re–use of contaminated needles and syringes. For those individuals who continue to inject drugs, the provision of needles and syringes through NSP reduces the need for sharing injecting equipment.

A study in 2002 from 103 cities in 24 countries showed that HIV infection rates declined by an average of 18.6% annually in 36 cities with needle and syringe programmes, while it increased by an average of 8.1% annually in 67 cities that did not have NSPs.

Research from around the world has established that NSPs Advocacy of needle and syringe programme highlight that Needle and syringe programmes need support from law enforcement officers who sometimes round up drug users who may be receiving services for prevention of HIV and force them into prisons where they may be even more vulnerable.

IDUs & The Law Join the Fight – Action Points
If you know someone who would benefit from the support offered by the drop in centres help them get in contact:
abbas.parvaneh@gmail.com
Mobile: +91 9970740921

You may not be an IDU but you could still be putting yourself at risk of HIV transmission through your drug intake, how? Alcohol & Unprotected Sex (without a Condom)

Alcohol & HIV Websites/Resources
Reports
The Extent, pattern and trends of drug use in India. ONODC – ROSA & MSJE 2004

Websites Books
Panda et al (2002) Living with the AIDS virus: the epedemic and the response in India, Sage Publications, India. Akhavi N (Ed) (2008) AIDS Untold Stories from India, Random House India, India.

For more information on HIV in India and Pune, and getting tested visit: www.wakeuppune.org