Sex Education

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Know your Body

Female Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System

Male Reproductive system
Male Reproductive system

Lets Talk about Sex
Sex can include… Vaginal Sex Explained
This is where the penis enters the vagina
This is where the penis enters the vagina
The Risk Factor
All penetrative sex is risky without a Condom and many sexually transmitted infections (STI) can be transmitted by unprotected penetrative vaginal sex.

If a man with HIV has vaginal intercourse without a Condom, infected fluid can pass into the woman’s blood stream through a tiny cut or sore inside her vagina. If a woman with HIV has sexual intercourse without a Condom, the virus could get into the man’s blood through the penis. Any contact with blood during sex increases the risk of infection.

Vaginal sex
Unprotected vaginal sex can also put you at risk of infections such as gonorrhoea, chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, hepatitis B and C, non-specific urethritis, syphilis and trichomonas vaginalis. Using a Condom can help to protect against all these.

Any kind of vaginal sex, unprotected or otherwise, may set off bacterial vaginosis and thrush.

Protect yourself
Always wear a Condom to protect yourself from STIs and unwanted pregnancy.

Anal Sex Explained
Anal Sex Explained
This is when the penis enters the anus.

Gay men
Although many people think it’s something only gay men do, the statistics actually show that about the same number of heterosexual people have anal sex as gay people.

The Risk Factor
Due to that fact that the lining of the anus is thin and can easily be damaged, anal sex has a higher risk of spreading sexually transmitted infections (STI) than many other types of sexual activity. In particular, it carries a higher than average risk of HIV transmission as well as genital warts, hepatitis A and hepatitis C.

Protect yourself
Using condoms and water–based lubricants, such as KY Jelly, will help protect you against STI during anal sex. However, other lubricants, especially oil–based ones, may cause condoms to split, as can over–energetic thrusting. Specially toughened condoms designed for anal intercourse are available and may offer more protection.
Oral Sex Explained The Risk Factor
Both giving and receiving oral sex can lead to the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI).

STI that may be passed on through oral sex are herpes type 1 virus, usually causing cold sores around the mouth and type 2 virus usually causing genital herpes sores. You may also be at risk from gonorrhoea and chlamydia, which can infect the throat of someone giving oral sex and you can get syphilis on the tongue and lips.

The hepatitis A virus is also contained in poo and may be passed on during oral sex around the anus (rimming). Hepatitis B is contained in sexual fluids and blood and may be transmitted during oral sex in a similar way to HIV. Hepatitis C is generally only contained in blood and so may only be transmitted if there is blood present during oral sex.

HIV (and hepatitis B, which is more infectious) can pose a small risk for both the active (person giving oral sex) and receptive (person receiving oral sex) partner. Both can occur when the active partner gets sexual fluid (semen or vaginal fluid) or blood (from menstruation or a wound somewhere in the genital or anal region) into a cut, sore, or ulcer somewhere in their mouth or throat. The linings of the mouth and throat are resistant to viral infections such as HIV, so infection is unlikely if they are healthy.

Transmission from an HIV positive active partner to an HIV negative receptive partner is less common. This is because HIV is normally only present in saliva in very low levels. There is a bigger risk of transmission from bleeding wounds or gums in the HIV positive person’s mouth or on their lips, which may transfer blood onto the other person’s genitals or anus, or into any cuts or sores they may have. Hepatitis C can also be transmitted this way.

Protect yourself
Condoms can dramatically reduce the risk of STI transmission during oral sex and a barrier, such as a dental dam, can also give protection. Lots of different flavoured condoms are available, which can make oral sex even more fun.

Rimming Explained
Licking, kissing and exploring your partner’s anus with your mouth.

The Risk Factor
Although poo (shit) doesn’t normally contain HIV, it does contain a large range of other organisms.

Protect yourself
To reduce the chance of infection, good anal hygiene before sex and good oral hygiene after sex is vital. Using a barrier like a dental dam to prevent poo (shit) from getting into your mouth can protect you from a range of intestinal parasites and hepatitis A.

Masturbation Explained
Masturbation - Its not just a man’s game Masturbation – Its not just a man’s game
Stimulating your genitals with your hand, which may include touching testicles, stroking the penis or vulva, or inserting fingers into the vagina.

Mutual masturbation is when partners stimulate each other’s genitals.

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) Sexually Transmitted Infections
STI Description & Risk
Genital Herpes (HSV)
Caused by a herpes simplex virus with ulcerating blisters occurring on the genitals or anal area. May be spread to the mouth.
Spread
STI Symptom
Many people feel fatigued, and have a fever
Complications & Treatment
Complications: The virus hides in nerve endings and reoccurs.
Treatment: Yes (Acyclovir – no cure).
Cure – No

STI Description & Risk
Genital Lice (CRABS)
Caused by the genital “Crab louse”, which transfers from the genital hair of one partner to the other, and lays eggs at the base of the hair, which hatch in 5 – 10 days.
Spread STI Symptom
Complications & Treatment
Complications: Social embarrassment (if infected, highly discussed)
Treatment: Yes (special soap – Quell)
Cure – Yes

STI Description & Risk
Hepatitis B Information
Caused by a virus that invades the liver. 100 times more infectious than HIV. This STD can be prevented by vaccine.
Spread STI Symptom
Complications & Treatment
Complications: Liver disease and failure
– Cancer of the liver
– Death
Treatment: Yes (rest, personal hygiene)
Cure: No (Preventative vaccine available)

STI Description & Risk
Syphilis Information
Caused by the Treponema pallidum bacterium which develop a staged disease over years. Highly contagious, but cannot survive outside the body. Affects the skin and any organ.
Spread
By contact with infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids or pus. – mother to unborn – direct touch – close body contact – unprotected anal sex – unprotected vaginal sex – unprotected oral sex – kissing – injecting blood (needle sharing)

STI Symptom
Early stages shows painless sores, swollen glands and skin rashes. Sores may be inside the vagina or anus and go unnoticed.
Stage 2. Rashes, new sores, flu–like symptoms, swollen glands, brain infection.

Complications & Treatment
Complications: Skin, bone, heart disease
– Brain disease
– Dementia
– Blindness if left untreated
Treatment: Yes (antibiotics). Sex contacts must be examined
Cure – Yes (with treatment)

STI Description & Risk
Trichomoniasis Info
Caused by the single–celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Vagina most common site in women, and the urethra in men.
Spread
Unprotected vaginal sex

STI Symptom
Complications & Treatment
Complications: Premature delivery
– Increased HIV susceptibility
Treatment – Yes (antibiotics)
Cure – Yes (with treatment)


Gonorrhoea
Gonorrhoea
What is it?
Ans. An infection caused by bacteria that live in the urethra, vagina, throat, anus or rectum.

What does it look like?
Ans. White or green discharge from the vagina or penis, pain when passing urine, itching in the anus or rectum.

How do I get it?
Ans. Engaging in sexual activity with someone who has it.

How can I prevent it?
Ans.Use a condom or dental dam.

Chlamydia
Chlamydia
What is it?
Ans. An infection caused by bacteria that live in the urethra, vagina, throat, or rectum.

What does it look like?
Ans. Most women who have it will have no symptoms.
White liquid discharge from the vagina or penis, pain when passing urine, pain in lower abdomen and during sex for women.

How do I get it?
Ans. Engaging in sexual activity with someone who has it. Penetrative sex, oral sex, transfer from fingers to eyes, mother to baby during birth.

How can I prevent it?
Ans. Use a condom or dental dam.

Genital Warts
Female genital warts
Female genital warts
What is it?
Ans. Fleshy lumps found around a man’s penis/testicles, a woman’s vagina, or around the anus.

What does it look like?
Ans. Itching, possible bleeding from warts inside the vagina or anus.

Male genital warts
Male genital warts
How do I get it?
Ans. Spread by close, skin–to–skin contact, especially though penetrative vaginal or anal sex.

How can I prevent it?
Ans. Use a condom or dental dam.


HIV
In Inida, 85% of HIV is through unprotected sex. Much of the stigma – and silence – associated with HIV is because of our inability to be open about sex.

Three modes of unprotected sex that can transmit HIV The number one method to protect against sexual transmission of HIV is correct and consistent condom use. Condoms also protect against pregnancy and most (but not all) sexually transmitted infections. Condoms can be used during anal, oral and vaginal sex as protection against HIV transmission.

Having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) increases the chances of transmitting HIV. It’s important to protect yourself – not just from HIV, but from all STIs.

Don’t Take the Risk – Know the Facts & Protect yourself
Contraceptives
Preventative measures taken to avoid pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

Types of Contraceptives
Condoms are the only form of contraceptive that protect against HIV

Spermicide Diaphragm Cervical Cap Female Condom
Spermicide Diaphragm Cervical Cap Female Condom
Intra-Uterine Systems Oral Contraceptives Condom Tubal Ligation, Vasectomy
Intra–Uterine Systems Oral Contraceptives Condom Tubal Ligation, Vasectomy

How to use a Condom
How to use a Condom
How to use a Condom
Open the condom package at one corner being careful not to tear the condom with your fingernails, your teeth, or through being too rough. Make sure the package and condom appear to be in good condition, and check if there is an expiry date that the date has not passed.

Place the rolled condom over the tip of the hard penis, and if the condom does not have a reservoir top, pinch the tip of the condom enough to leave a half inch space for semen to collect. If the man is not circumcised, then pull back the foreskin before rolling on the condom.

Pinch the air out of the condom tip with one hand and unroll the condom over the penis with the other hand. Roll the condom all the way down to the base of the penis, and smooth out any air bubbles. (Air bubbles can cause a condom to break).

If you want to use some extra lubrication, put it on the outside of the condom. But always use a water–based lubricant (such as KY Jelly or Liquid Silk) with latex condoms, as an oil–based lubricant will cause the latex to break.

How to make a Dental Dam
How to make a Dental Dam
How to make a Dental Dam
Used as a barrier between the mouth and the vagina when engaging in oral sex.

Condom vending machine
Websites/Resources
• Terrance Higgins Trust – www.tht.org.uk
www.avert.org
• Sexuality and U – www.sexualityandu.ca
• Condom Essential Wear – www.condomessentialwear.co.uk

For more information on HIV in India and Pune, and getting tested visit: www.wakeuppune.org