Most Common STIs

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There are more than 20 known sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Some of them will cause symptoms that should be brought to the attention of a doctor immediately. A person could have the disease but might not notice any symptoms of the infection. Therefore, it is important to be tested for STIs if you take part in unprotected oral, genital, or anal sex.

The most common STIs are listed below The most commonly found sexually transmitted infection in India are
Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea (or “Clap”) is an infectious sexually transmitted infection that chiefly affects the mucous membrane of the urogenital tract, the rectum, and occasionally the eyes. The disease is caused by gonococci and belongs to the genera of Neisseria. Discharges from the involved mucous membranes are the source of infection and the bacteria are transmitted by direct contact, usually sexual or during passage of a newborn through the birth canal.

Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors
This infection occurs in people who have been infected with gonorrhea. It affects women more frequently than men (4:1) and its highest incidence is among sexually active adolescent girls. There is also increased risk during menstruation and pregnancy. Two forms of arthritis exist, one with skin rashes and multiple joint involvement but no demonstrable gonococci in the joint fluid, and a second, less common form where disseminated gonococcemia leads to infection of a single joint (monoarticular) and joint fluid cultures are positive.

Single joint arthritis follows generalized spread (dissemination) of the gonococcal infection. Dissemination is associated with symptoms of fever, chills, multiple joint aches (arthralgia) and rashes (1mm–2cm red macules). This episode may end as a single joint becomes infected. The most commonly involved joints are the knee, wrist, and ankle.

In Males
Usually, suffer’s inflammation of the urethra with pus and painful urination. Fibrosis sometimes occurs in an advanced stage, causing narrowing of the urethra. There also may be involvement of the epididymis and prostate gland.

In Females
Infection may occur in the urethra, vagina, and cervix, and there may be a discharge of pus. However, infected females often harbor the disease without any symptoms until it has progressed to a more advanced stage. If the uterine (Fallopian) tubes become involved, pelvic inflammation may follow. Peritonitis, or inflammation of the peritoneum, is a very serious disorder. The infection should be treated and controlled immediately because, if neglected, sterility or death may result. Although antibiotics have greatly reduced the mortality rate of acute peritonitis, it is estimated that between 50,000 and 80,000 women are made sterile by gonorrhea every year as a result of scar tissue formation that closes the uterine tubes. If the bacteria are transmitted to the eyes of the newborn in the birth canal, blindness can result.

Prevention
Prevention consists of following safer sexual practices. Monogamous sexual relations with a known disease–free partner are considered the ideal means of prevention. The use of condoms provides the best protection against gonorrhea and other sexually–transmitted infections. Treatment of all sexual partners of a known infected person is essential to prevent further spread or re–infection.

Symptoms
The Common Symptoms are: Signs and Tests
The Doctor may advice one or more of the following tests: Treatment
Abstinence from coitus until the infection is eradicated. Patients are advised bed–rest and analgesics. Various antibiotics are prescribed.
Medication Include: A follow–up visit 7 days after treatment to recheck cultures and confirm the cure of infection is important.

Complications
If untreated, Gonorrhea may lead to: persistent discomfort, other gonorrhea complications, such as disseminated gonorrhea (spread throughout the body). Hence, immediate diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhea is essential.